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新视野大学英语_新视野大学英语1读写教程课文unit 5 The Battle Against AIDS

新视野大学英语_新视野大学英语1读写教程课文unit 5 The Battle Against AIDS

新视野大学英语读写教程第一册课文unit5

Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening

Having ideas about an essay before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a short piece of recording about AIDS.

Second Listening

Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions to the best of your ability.

1. What is the name of the disease that appeared more than 20 years ago?

2. What war does this passage describe?

3. What must each of us learn to do?

The Battle Against AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in the United States in the late 1970s. Since then, AIDS has killed more than 204,000 Americans — half in the past few years alone. Another 185,000 of the one million infected with the HIV virus are also expected to die.

Nearly half of those diagnosed with the virus are blacks and Latinos. Women and youth in rural Southern communities now constitute the fastest growing segment of people with AIDS.

Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. In place of government inactivity, a number of local organizations have emerged.

One organization, the South Carolina AIDS Education Network, formed in 1985 to combat the growing number of AIDS cases. Like many local organizations, this organization suffers from a lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively. To reach more people in the community, some AIDS educational programs operate out of a beauty shop.

The owner hands out AIDS information to all her clients when they enter the shop and shows videos on AIDS prevention while they wait for their hair to dry. She also keeps books and other publications around so customers can read them while waiting for their appointments. It's amazing how many people she has educated on the job.

Recently, the network began helping hair stylists throughout the Southeast set up similar programs in their shops. They are also valuable resources in spreading information to their schools, community groups, and churches.

The organization has developed several techniques useful to other groups doing similar work. While no one way of winning the war against AIDS exists, the network shares these lessons learned in its battle against AIDS:

Speak to your community in a way they can hear. Many communities have a low literacy rate, making impossible passing out AIDS literature and expecting people to read it. To solve this problem, ask people in the community who can draw well to create low-literacy AIDS education publications.

These books use simple, hand-drawn pictures of "sad faces" and "happy faces" to illustrate ways people can prevent AIDS. They also show people who look like those we need to educate, since people can relate more when they see familiar faces and language they can understand. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities where they are used than government publications, which cost thousands of dollars more to produce.

Train teenagers to educate their peers. Because AIDS is spreading fastest among teenagers in the rural South, the stylists have established an "AIDS Busters" program which trains youth from 8 to 26 to go into the community and teach "AIDS 101" to their peers. They make it simple and explain the risk of catching AIDS to friends their own age much better than an adult can. They also play a vital role in helping parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience.

Redefine "at risk" to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status. One woman's doctor told her she was not at risk for AIDS because she was married and didn't use drugs. Such misinformation plagues the medical establishment. According to the Centers for Disease Control, women will soon make up 80 percent of those diagnosed with HIV.

The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves — regardless of marriage status.

These lessons are not the only solutions to the crisis but until there is a cure for AIDS, education represents the only safe measure to guard against the virus.

Like no other plague before, the AIDS epidemic threatens to wipe out an entire generation and leave another without parents. We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done. Nor can we let political inefficiency stop us from our task. This is an undeclared war that everyone must sign up for in order for us to win. We simply cannot let people continue to die because we don't feel comfortable talking about AIDS. Everyone must become an educator and learn to live.

新视野大学英语读写教程第一册课文unit5

Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening

Having ideas about an essay before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a short piece of recording about AIDS.

Second Listening

Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions to the best of your ability.

1. What is the name of the disease that appeared more than 20 years ago?

2. What war does this passage describe?

3. What must each of us learn to do?

The Battle Against AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in the United States in the late 1970s. Since then, AIDS has killed more than 204,000 Americans — half in the past few years alone. Another 185,000 of the one million infected with the HIV virus are also expected to die.

Nearly half of those diagnosed with the virus are blacks and Latinos. Women and youth in rural Southern communities now constitute the fastest growing segment of people with AIDS.

Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. In place of government inactivity, a number of local organizations have emerged.

One organization, the South Carolina AIDS Education Network, formed in 1985 to combat the growing number of AIDS cases. Like many local organizations, this organization suffers from a lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively. To reach more people in the community, some AIDS educational programs operate out of a beauty shop.

The owner hands out AIDS information to all her clients when they enter the shop and shows videos on AIDS prevention while they wait for their hair to dry. She also keeps books and other publications around so customers can read them while waiting for their appointments. It's amazing how many people she has educated on the job.

Recently, the network began helping hair stylists throughout the Southeast set up similar programs in their shops. They are also valuable resources in spreading information to their schools, community groups, and churches.

The organization has developed several techniques useful to other groups doing similar work. While no one way of winning the war against AIDS exists, the network shares these lessons learned in its battle against AIDS:

Speak to your community in a way they can hear. Many communities have a low literacy rate, making impossible passing out AIDS literature and expecting people to read it. To solve this problem, ask people in the community who can draw well to create low-literacy AIDS education publications.

These books use simple, hand-drawn pictures of "sad faces" and "happy faces" to illustrate ways people can prevent AIDS. They also show people who look like those we need to educate, since people can relate more when they see familiar faces and language they can understand. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities where they are used than government publications, which cost thousands of dollars more to produce.

Train teenagers to educate their peers. Because AIDS is spreading fastest among teenagers in the rural South, the stylists have established an "AIDS Busters" program which trains youth from 8 to 26 to go into the community and teach "AIDS 101" to their peers. They make it simple and explain the risk of catching AIDS to friends their own age much better than an adult can. They also play a vital role in helping parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience.

Redefine "at risk" to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status. One woman's doctor told her she was not at risk for AIDS because she was married and didn't use drugs. Such misinformation plagues the medical establishment. According to the Centers for Disease Control, women will soon make up 80 percent of those diagnosed with HIV.

The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves — regardless of marriage status.

These lessons are not the only solutions to the crisis but until there is a cure for AIDS, education represents the only safe measure to guard against the virus.

Like no other plague before, the AIDS epidemic threatens to wipe out an entire generation and leave another without parents. We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done. Nor can we let political inefficiency stop us from our task. This is an undeclared war that everyone must sign up for in order for us to win. We simply cannot let people continue to die because we don't feel comfortable talking about AIDS. Everyone must become an educator and learn to live.

Section B

The Last Dive at the Olympics

I climbed the ladder, heard my dive announced, and commenced the moves that would thrust me into the air. Pushing off the diving board with my legs, I lifted my arms and shoulders back, and knew immediately I would be close to the board and might hit my hands. I tried to correct myself as I turned, spreading my hands wide apart. Then I heard a strange sound and my body lost control. Moments later I realized I had hit my head on the board.

Initially, I felt embarrassment. I wanted to hide, to get out of the pool without anyone seeing me. Next I felt intense fear. Had I cut my head? Was I bleeding? Was there blood in the pool? Swimming to the side, I noticed many shocked faces. People were worried about my head; I was worried about something far more threatening. An official examined my head. In haste, I pushed him away, and everyone else who approached me. "Don't touch me!" I felt like screaming. "Get away from me!"

These were the trials for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea. Until this dive, I had been ahead. But now, something else was more significant than winning. I might have endangered other divers' lives if I had spilled blood in the pool. For what I knew — that few others knew — was that I was HIV-positive.

According to my mother, my natural parents were Samoan and only teenagers when I was born, so they gave me up for adoption. When I was only eighteen months old, I started gym classes. At ten, I explored doing gym exercises off the diving board at the pool.

Because of my dark skin, kids at school called me names; I often got mugged coming home from school. My diving made me feel good about myself when my peers made me feel stupid. In the seventh grade, I started taking drugs.

At sixteen, I knew I had a shot at the 1976 Olympics. At the trials, one month prior to the finals, I took first place on the ten-meter platform and on the springboard! This was surprising because I had trained mostly on the platform. In the finals, I won the silver medal for the platform. Unfortunately, I wasn't happy. Instead, I felt I failed because I hadn't won the gold. After that, I started training with Ron O'Brien, a well-known Olympic diving coach. Ron understood me and assisted my working more intensely. I soon became the international leader in diving. In the 1984 Olympics, I won two gold medals, one for platform, one for springboard. This was an enjoyable triumph.

No one knew then I was gay, except Ron and a few friends. I feared being hated if people found out. Four years later, while preparing for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, I learned my partner had AIDS. I had to accept I might be HIV-positive or have AIDS, too. When my HIV test results returned positive, I was shocked and confused. Was I dying? Was my shot at the '88 Olympics vaporized? What should I do? During this very difficult time, I couldn't tell anyone for fear I wouldn't be able to compete in the Olympics if people learned I was HIV-positive.

Everyone was alarmed when I hit my head on the board at the trials in Seoul. Regardless, I made it into the finals. When we practiced the next morning, my coach made me start with the dive I'd hit my head on. At first, I was scared, but Ron made me do it six times. With each repetition, I felt more confident.

During my last dive in the finals, I enjoyed for the last time the quietness underwater and then swam to the side of the pool. Afraid to look at the score-board, I watched Ron's face. Suddenly he leaped into the air, the crowd cheered, and I knew I'd won — two gold medals, one for the three-meter springboard, one for the ten-meter platform. None knew how hard it had been, except Ron and the friends I'd told I was HIV-positive.

AIDS forced me to stop diving; I had to quit diving professionally after the Olympics.

Section C

International Joint Efforts Against AIDS

The uniting of the world around the AIDS epidemic is without prior example. As the number of AIDS cases around the world rapidly increases, nations are showing great focus in battling this common enemy — attacking rich and poor countries the same.

By 1989, almost every nation on earth had established a program educating its people about AIDS, according to Jonathan Mann, director of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Program on AIDS. At that time, 143 countries had reported one or more AIDS cases.

In addition to national AIDS programs, working together internationally has begun. Through open exchanges of scientific facts as well as support of international organizations such as the World Health Organization, all nations can join efforts to fight against this life-threatening disease. According to WHO, this international effort has produced two critical developments: first, there is an amazing level of world-wide focus, using world scientists and international sharing of human and economic resources to fight AIDS. Second, the work of governments, organizations, and businesses has been followed by the very high activity of people — as singles, families, and communities.

The Influence of AIDS

The rise of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) around the earth has represented a major challenge to medical progress both in developed and in less-developed countries. The past forty years saw great success in the control of spreading diseases and great strides toward achieving "health for all by the year 2000" (a major WHO goal) through improved basic health care, food, cleanliness, and immunization(免疫)programs.

Yet, because of its sudden start and rapid spread, AIDS could soon wipe out this progress. By the end of 1988, more than 130,000 cases of AIDS were reported, but, because of underreporting, there may actually be more than 350,000 cases. Also, at least five million persons likely have the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)(艾滋病病毒), which causes AIDS. That means as many as 400,000 new cases of AIDS could occur in the next few years — more than doubling the present total. Caring for AIDS patients could seriously stress economic resources even in richer countries.

Preventing one case of AIDS means preventing many future cases, while preventing a case of measles(麻疹)or malaria(疟疾)in Africa would have little effect on its spreading, since those diseases are already common in many countries. Resources devoted to AIDS testing, care, and education could also be used to battle other, more-known diseases in developing countries.

Stopping the Spread

AIDS spreads only in limited ways and can be prevented through informed and mature behavior. Encouraging such behavior depends on understanding the different ways AIDS is spread around the world. AIDS spreads in three basic ways: first, through sexual intercourse(性交); second, through contact with diseased blood; and third from an HIV mother to her baby. The actual patterns of spreading of the AIDS virus change from culture to culture.

Spreading of AIDS in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Latin America occurs most often among homosexual(同性恋)or bisexual(双性恋)men and intravenous (IV) (静脉内注射的)drug users(吸毒者), most often in city areas. Heterosexual(异性之间的)spreading is low, but there is danger that the spread of AIDS from male(男性) IV-drug users to their female(女性)partners could increase the appearance of AIDS in the heterosexual population.

In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, particularly the Caribbean, most cases occur among heterosexuals, and spreading from mother-to-child is common. Spreading through homosexual contact and IV-drug use almost does not exist.

In Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, Asia, and most of the Pacific, fewer cases of AIDS, usually among drug users, have been reported thus far. The WHO estimates that Bangkok, Thailand IV-drug users having the AIDS virus increased from less than 1 percent in August 1987 to 30 percent one year later.

Reaching Out

The WHO believes that, as AIDS becomes more common, the disease promises to unite the world to a degree never seen before. In just two years, the international plan against AIDS has grown from ideas to practice, from speeches to action. The WHO is certain that, together, we will triumph over AIDS rather than allow the disease and the fears, worries, and prejudices(偏见)which go with it to overpower us.

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